Key PointsHydrogen bond are solid intermolecular forces developed when a hydrogen atom external inspection to one electronegative atom philosophies a adjacent electronegative atom.Greater electronegativity of the hydrogen shortcut acceptor will certainly lead to rise in hydrogen-bond strength.The hydrogen bond is one of the strongest intermolecular attractions, yet weaker 보다 a covalent or an ionic bond.Hydrogen bonds are responsible for holding with each other DNA, proteins, and other macromolecules.

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Termshydrogen bondThe attraction in between a partly positively fee hydrogen atom attached come a highly electronegative atom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and also another nearby electronegative atom.electronegativityThe tendency of an atom or molecule to draw electrons towards itself, type dipoles, and thus type bonds.intermolecularA form of interaction between two various molecules.

Forming a Hydrogen Bond

A hydrogen shortcut is the electromagnetic attraction created in between a partly positively charged hydrogen atom attached come a extremely electronegative atom and also another surrounding electronegative atom. A hydrogen link is a form of dipole-dipole interaction; that is not a true chemistry bond. These attractions deserve to occur in between molecules (intermolecularly) or within various parts of a solitary molecule (intramolecularly).

Hydrogen bonding in waterThis is a space-filling round diagram the the interactions between separate water molecules.

Hydrogen bond Donor

A hydrogen atom attached come a fairly electronegative atom is a hydrogen link donor. This electronegative atom is generally fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. The electronegative atom attractive the electron cloud from roughly the hydrogen cell nucleus and, through decentralizing the cloud, pipeline the hydrogen atom with a optimistic partial charge. Since of the small size that hydrogen relative to various other atoms and molecules, the result charge, though just partial, is stronger. In the molecule ethanol, there is one hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom, i m sorry is an extremely electronegative. This hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond donor.

Hydrogen bond Acceptor

A hydrogen shortcut results as soon as this solid partial optimistic charge attracts a lone pair of electrons on an additional atom, which i do not care the hydrogen bond acceptor. One electronegative atom such together fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, nevertheless of whether it is bonded to a hydrogen atom or not. Better electronegativity that the hydrogen bond acceptor will develop a stronger hydrogen bond. The diethyl ether molecule has an oxygen atom the is not bonded come a hydrogen atom, making it a hydrogen shortcut acceptor.

Hydrogen link donor and hydrogen bond acceptorEthanol includes a hydrogen atom that is a hydrogen link donor due to the fact that it is external inspection to one electronegative oxygen atom, i beg your pardon is an extremely electronegative, so the hydrogen atom is slightly positive. Diethyl ether has an oxygen atom that is a hydrogen bond acceptor because it is no bonded to a hydrogen atom and also so is contempt negative.

A hydrogen attached to carbon can likewise participate in hydrogen bonding as soon as the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform (CHCl3). Together in a molecule wherein a hydrogen is attached come nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, the electronegative atom attractive the electron cloud from roughly the hydrogen cell core and, through decentralizing the cloud, pipeline the hydrogen atom through a hopeful partial charge.

Interactive: Hydrogen BondingExplore hydrogen bond forming between polar molecules, such as water. Hydrogen bonds are presented with dotted lines. Display partial charges and run the model. Where execute hydrogen bonds form? Try transforming the temperature that the model. Just how does the sample of hydrogen bonding explain the lattice that makes up ice crystals?

Applications because that Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonds take place in inorganic molecules, such together water, and also organic molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The 2 complementary strands that DNA are organized together through hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides (A&T, C&G). Hydrogen bonding in water contributes come its distinctive properties, including its high boiling suggest (100 °C) and surface tension.

Water droplets top top a leafThe hydrogen bonds formed in between water molecule in water droplets room stronger 보다 the various other intermolecular forces in between the water molecules and also the leaf, contributing come high surface tension and also distinct water droplets.

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In biology, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partially responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and also quaternary frameworks of proteins and also nucleic acids. The hydrogen bonds help the proteins and also nucleic acids form and maintain certain shapes.

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