, via Wikimedia Commons" class="img-responsive">

Auburn Correctional Facility. By Kotepho in ~ English Wikipedia (Transferred native en.wikipedia to Commons.) , via Wikimedia Commons

The creation of the 19th Century prison Reform arsenal was sustained by the Grants program for ivorycrimestory.com collection in Arts and Sciences, awarded to Katie Thorsteinson, doctoral candidate in the room of English at Cornell University, in 2017.

You are watching: Which of the following best describes the scope of social reform movements during the gilded age?

The following introduction to the repertoire was created by Katie Thorsteinson.


This ivorycrimestory.com collection exhibits numerous documents charting the development of the Auburn prison System. In the early to mid- 19th Century, us criminal justice was undergoing massive reform. The state prisons which had arised out of previously reform efforts were becoming increasingly crowded, diseased, and dangerous. Consequently, the “Auburn System” was developed in brand-new York at Auburn State Prison and Sing sing Correctional Facility. The reformers thought the penitentiary can serve as a design for family and education, so seek a system that was more rehabilitative than harshly punitive. Prohibited from talking at every times, detainees were confined in separate cells in ~ night and then labored together throughout the day in workshops modeled top top the industrial factory. This regimented work-related routine and enforced quiet issued from American protestant ethics and also the progressively capitalist reasonable of the emergent nation. Back this “silent” device was extremely popular with many reformers across the unified States and beyond (de Tocqueville wrote of it in Democracy in America), Pennsylvania had already developed a vying system. The “Pennsylvania System” discounted the industrial factory model of quiet labor, emphasizing rather the redemptive and also hygienic values of permanent solitary confinement through an artisan job style. In fact, the Pennsylvania System an initial inspired the construction and also management of Auburn Prison. However, the Auburn device eventually arisen several crucial modifications. Slightly less involved with the Quaker-inspired rule of non-violence, Auburn adopted a more Puritan ethic of just recompense. Disagreement among these reformers about the future of American incarceration was frequently vociferous and combative. Indeed, “the rivalry between them came to be one the the specifying controversies of the Jacksonian period, v which Americans disputed the definition of citizenship and also humanity in the Republic” (Smith 10).

While the Pennsylvania system was at an initial popular in the unified States and also England, through 1833 the Auburn System had actually been established throughout Maine, new Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Washington DC, Virginia, Tennessee, Louisiana, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, and also even Ontario Canada. Only Pennsylvania, brand-new Jersey, and also Maryland retained the rival system. Meanwhile, a much more bureaucratic dispute had been stirring in between the brand-new York jail Association and the assessors of State Prisons. Both teams sought government over jail management, and also their complaints taped in this collection reveal a level of feel exceeding even the early Auburn/Pennsylvania reformers. Kroch ivorycrimestory.com’s Rare and Manuscript Collections residences several an extremely important papers that expectancy 1826 come 1881, revealing the tensions and also contingencies that history. This ivorycrimestory.com arsenal exhibits these records somewhat chronologically, embedded within a review and synthetic of this two main debates. A few stray fragments and images are had at the end to to mark the an individual and politics connections between the various reform motions of this period. Finally, the conclusion explores why this background matters because that our modern-day debates around racialized mass incarceration. After ~ all, these artifacts remind united state how numerous directions we can have turned. When our modern-day prison system may seem necessary, obvious, and incontrovertible, that was as soon as only a possibility. Details is mainly presented in essay style on this page, yet you will uncover some annotations and hyperlinks by clicking on items. Where details cannot be elucidated by the artefacts in Kroch ivorycrimestory.com, you will uncover references to external archives and readings.

Before Reform

Prior come the Revolutionary War, the American criminal justice system was based upon English typical law (subsequently gaining several civil legislation elements). Transparent the seventeenth and also eighteenth centuries, various forms of physical punishment or publicly shaming were used to both trivial and brutal crimes alike. Even in this period, however, American courts had tendency to be much less punitive 보다 those in England whereby minor infractions like robbery were easily cause for death. This penalty was comparatively rarely in the American colonies and also pardons to be typical. Although not released until 1943, the following book reproduces an example of the common law device in 17th Century England. "The trial of Adrian Scrope" for regicide brought about his execution in 1660, exiling his kid to America wherein he renamed “William Throope.” Coincidently, new York’s twelfth governor and prison reformer Enos T. Throop to be a descendant.


William Throop and also Adrian Scrope: The household Tradition (1943)

Moreover, while jails exist in the American colonies, they were not constructed to contain human being for lengthy periods that time. Instead, they were regularly used as temporary holding cells prior to trial and also for the dispensation of this other creates of corporal punishment. In addition to the presumption that such techniques were an ext effective at preventing and also reprimanding crime, early american America struggled with a job shortage that motivated the speedy relax of potential workers. Workhouses, however, did hold prisoners for much longer periods of time. “Vagrants” or debtors were confined in communal cell at night and forced to occupational off your debts throughout the day. In either case, confinement in these “houses that correction” was not itself taken into consideration a mechanism of punishment.

After the American transformation and the United says Constitution, however, confinement became both way and ends of criminal justice. (Though Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut had all inaugurated penal reforms in the years instantly prior.) with the invoice of Rights, Americans were guaranteed cost-free speech, protection from unreasonable search and seizure, early out process, a fair and fast trial by jury, freedom from excessive fines or cruel and also unusual punishment. The heart of the period swept right into myriad society reform movements, especially regarding the law and government. Legit codes were standardized, and also law enforcement was progressively supervised. Plenty of states to be abolishing details corporal punishments and also restricting the fatality penalty, both considered holdovers from autarchic authoritarianism. These political feelings mixed with brand-new religious fervor in the Second good Awakening. While “political philosophers emerged the theory of the society contract, and legal theorists used the language of citizen"s rights,” the well-known reform movements of the moment “preferred the idiom of Christian charity and sentimental "humanity"" (Smith 35). Punishment was administered privately and “humanely” at any time possible.

Moreover, together cities grew in the Industrial revolution and with raised immigration from Europe, people began to reconceive the causes of criminal behavior. Top top the one hand, the climb in transient populaces prompted many to think the criminals together contaminating outsiders rather than just errant neighbors. ~ above the various other hand, many blamed polluted and sinful urban atmospheres instead of essentializing about criminal types. “No much longer a predatory beast,” the criminal “became a shed soul” (Smith 35). In the wake of these demographic shifts, older punishments failed. Exile merely exacerbated the spread out of transient criminals and corporal punishment could not isolation them from the corruption of metropolitan centers. Longer-term incarceration thus appeared the perfect replacement, particularly throughout the Northeast. The course, enslaved civilization were still tortured throughout this duration in the many horrific and also public ways. The jail reform movement for this reason marks the increased racialization the corporal punishment. Nevertheless, several files at the end of this collection reveal the intimate connections in between the prison reform and slave abolitionist movements as well as those functioning on behalf of veterans, the poor, or the mentally ill. Because that example, novel organizations like the asylum and almshouse were emerging in tandem through the penitentiary. The Auburn jail System straight inspired the Ohio State Reformatory in Mansfield.

All these reform movements were an excellent experiments, and also many approaches had actually to be abandoned or reconceived follow me the way. Because that example, most of these early on reform efforts centered on changing the penal code. It was not until the 1810s the widespread construction of penitentiaries started after greater incarceration rates resulted in overcrowded gaols and, like most infrastructural projects, this procedure took time. Although Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Jail to be renamed the country’s first state jail in 1790, building was not attempted in Pennsylvania till The east State Penitentiary which opened in 1829. Auburn opened in 1818, however the north Wing was no completed until 1821. It to be this addition that yes, really initiated the Auburn system as distinctive from the forebear, and also the southern Wing was remade as necessary in 1823. The bifurcation of Pennsylvania and Auburn solution is thus recorded in the prison’s an extremely architecture. Song Sing to be then constructed entirely top top the Auburn model but did not open until 1826 and also was not completed until two years later. Even during this period, reformers often tended to endorse the mere truth of imprisonment and would not really start to theorize assorted penal equipment until the Jacksonian Era. The penitentiary has actually a specifically vexed history in the South, yet the institution had lastly taken hold by the end of the 1830s. Follow to Paul Cromwell, the Auburn System conquered largely due to the fact that it was more cost-effective and also sometimes even lucrative for the government.

But the polite War and its consequences reinvigorated this reformist movements throughout the joined States. Few state prisons had actually been produced or renovated due to the fact that the earlier part of the century and also several power struggles had occurred between different administrative agencies. Moreover, the restoration Era carried public fist to dilapidated and also archaic antebellum prisons. These efforts to reform and standardize criminal justice thus constituted a larger project of rebuilding national solidarity. Even at the end of this century, however, reformers were still protesting the same overcrowded, mixed-gender, exploitative, and also harsh problems in prison. Relying greatly on brand-new social “scientific” ideas, this “Progressive Era” reformers activate both under behaviorist models that correctional incentivization and eugenic theories around racial delinquency.

See more: Dance Moves: The Male Stripper S How To Dance Like A Male Stripper Academy

“One should not,” Michel Foucault argues, “regard the prison, the ‘failure’ and its much more or much less successful reform as three successive stages” (271). He defines further that

In a very strange way, the background of imprisonment does not obey a chronology… There was in truth a telescoping or in any type of case a various distribution of these elements. And, simply as the job of a corrective method accompanied the principle of punitive detention, the critique of the prison and its methods appeared an extremely early on, in those same years 1820-45; indeed, it to be embodied in a number of formulations which— numbers apart— are today repeated virtually unchanged. (Foucault 264-265)

In a really real sense, reformers always situate themselves as the before come a dangerous after. The debates among these reformers inevitably reoriented your projects and the really momentum that these movements enlarged their scope, such that this “before” has actually spanned the presence of the penitentiary itself.