Philip H. Winne, in global Encyclopedia that the social & behavior Sciences (Second Edition), 2015

Research Findings

Methodological problems affecting SRL research need to be mental in considering result reported in research involving SRL.

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SRL is not always beneficial. Learners sometimes report picking methods because that studying since they are simple to use or to advice progress also if they think other effortful and also less rapid approaches for researching – the so-called desirable difficulties – would certainly be better for finding out (see Bjork et al., 2013). Similarly, procrastination and other self-handicapping techniques, such as as soon as learners report intentionally picking not to study so they have actually an pardon for poor performance (see Midgley et al., 1996), are forms of SRL due to the fact that learners deliberately decide exactly how to regulate their engagement in (or disengagement from) learning. This decisions, however, depress achievement.

In general, learners' reports the engaging in SRL-related events have moderate confident correlations with scholastic achievement (e.g., Nota et al., 2004). Sustaining or training learners to apply SRL-related actions deserve to improve success (e.g., Michalsky, 2013; Sadi and Uyar, 2013) specifically when SRL cultivate is component of a multifaceted treatment that gives learners v tactics and strategies for accomplishing scholastic tasks, such as mathematics (Leidinger and Perels, 2012) and writing (Brunstein and also Glaser, 2011).

Correlational and some speculative research indicate several facets that merit fist in cultivating learners' usage and breakthrough of fertile SRL. These include creating learning jobs that are facility enough to afford genuine decision making but not so complicated as to lower self-efficacy or overload cognition (Perry, 1998), helping teachers develop beliefs that fertile SRL deserve to be sustained by straight teaching learners around cognitive tactics and strategies (Dignath-van Ewijk and van der Werf, 2012), creating learning settings that increase learners' intrinsic valuing of school (van der Veen and also Peetsma, 2009), and facilitating learners' attention to opportunities to metacognitively monitor and control their learning (Ifenthaler, 2012; Lawanto and Santoso, 2013).

Barry J. Zimmerman, in worldwide Encyclopedia of the society & behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 2015


Self-regulated finding out refers to exactly how students come to be masters of their own learning processes. No a mental capacity nor a performance skill, self-regulation is instead the self-directive procedure through which learner transform their psychological abilities right into task-related an abilities in diverse areas of functioning, such together academia, sports, music, and health. This article will specify self-regulated learning and also describe the pundit context in i m sorry the construct emerged, changes in researchers' emphasis over time and also current emphases, methodological issues related to the construct, and directions for future research.

P.H. Winne, A.F. Hadwin, in global Encyclopedia of education and learning (Third Edition), 2010

Commonalities throughout Models of SRL

Task Environment

Whenever SRL occurs, it occurs in the paper definition of a job the student is pursuing. Tasks may it is in assigned by teachers, textbooks, or peers in a collaborative work group; or, jobs may be self-generated, as when a student pursues knowledge and skills related to a hobby. Work are multifaceted and there is great variety among typologies because that characterizing tasks. Typical facets include time available, sources at hand, even if it is standards room explicit or implicit, and characteristics the feedback the student can access (e.g., timing, topic, and also guidance).


To have capacity come self-regulate learning, learners must have the ability to make options and, within relatively wide limits, to act on their choices. Without such latitude of behavior, finding out is other-regulated quite than self-regulated. Firm is the common term supplied to define this volume to choose and act on choices. Sociocognitive concept emphasizes the role of individual firm on person learning. Bandura proposed the human firm involves four core functions including: intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. These functions of firm are cornerstones in most models of SRL and account for the perception the self-regulation is a sociocognitive process. Together such, every design of SRL rests top top the presumption that learners can exercise firm although that is recognized that, because that practical and other reasons, company is no boundless. For example, expressions of agency are strong prescribed by social conventions.


Making adjustments to commodities of learning or processes provided in learning might sometimes be trial and also error. Notwithstanding a universal presumption tacit in some models that SRL is that learners are purposeful and also oriented to certain goals. Goals specify standards for judging the adequacy or sufficiency that products and processes. Formally, a typical is a description of an observable function of a product or procedure that deserve to be measure up at the very least nominally, that is, existing or absent. Goals also can have functions that space measured at finer distinctions, such as ranks and intervals.

Goals have actually two characteristics. One is completely informational. In this sense, requirements that constitute goals are just descriptions of assets or processes. The various other characteristic of goals is what they typical to people. In this sense, goals matter due to the fact that they have qualia – feelings, emotions, motivation, and values. Part models of SRL give different prominence to the informational features and also the qualia that goals.


Goals play duties in SRL throughout time. First, purposes are details learners think about as they form their technique to tasks, consisting of whether the job is accepted as presented, accepted yet modified, or rejected. Second, learner may take into consideration goals in the midst of engaging in a task. Some tasks have explicit subgoals. Third, learners deserve to examine products and also processes offered in learning at suggest of completion. In all three instances, standards natural in the purposes are contrasted to attributes of the products and processes at each allude along the timeline. Monitoring is the cognitive procedure responsible for making this comparison and also generating a summary of the match in between goals and events. In this sense, all models the SRL are metacognitive models due to the fact that this monitoring is naturally metacognitive.

Memory and also Reasoning

New situations are never precisely the same as front experiences. Thus, learners translate each brand-new situation in relation to what they remember about previous cases they deem similar. In this way, every SRL is integrally dependency on what a learner deserve to remember around previous situations, and also what that understanding permits them come perceive about new situations. In matching history to the present, learners interpolate or interpret.

When learners change a product or process, models that SRL i think learners execute this through an intention that making that particular adjustment, together opposed come some other adjustment, will certainly align the product or process with standards defined in goals. Having this intention requires that learner reason around the likelihood the convey will have actually intended effects.

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is central to the advancement of ours theoretical framework for discovering motivation. SRL is discovering that is score oriented, conscious, and also not under a tutor’s immediate regulate (Rheinberg et al., 2000). Examples of SRL are, do the efforts to gain familiarity v a mathematical formula, practicing the correct pronunciation of a international language, researching for a pilot license, learning exactly how to occupational with a computer, or practicing a item for the piano. Throughout SRL a tutor’s prompt control and also guidance is missing, for this reason learning an inspiration should pat a an especially important role. Figure 1 gift a framework that organizes the variables and also processes that have to be thought about if we desire to shot to understand how motivation has an impact on learning.


Figure 1 consists of four sections. It starts with the fixed antecedents the a learning case for a given person: the human (Box 1) and also situation (Box 2) characteristics. The second section includes aspects of existing learning motivation (Boxes 3 and also 4). Together current an inspiration results indigenous the interaction between the case (Box 2) and also person characteristics (Box 1). It has a particular strength and quality and—if solid enough—leads to finding out behavior. The 3rd section (Box 5) refers to the mediating variables during learning that impact the finding out process. The final section is the finding out outcome accomplished from engaging in a specific learning behavior in a details learning episode.

We assume that motivated actions is always a duty of human and situation, comparable to Lewin (1951). V regard to person attributes we place right into Box 1 motivational traits, such together competence-related motives (e.g., Atkinson, 1957; White, 1959), separation, personal, instance interests (Krapp, 1992), superordinate objectives (Heckhausen, 1977), and comparable variables that define stable motivational qualities of the person. Through regard to situation, crate 2 includes task characteristics, such together the subject matter or the task’s structure and also difficulty. Crate 2 also contains much more general functions of the discovering situation, including the social setup (learning alone vs. Discovering within a group) and also the potential gains and losses the learner can anticipate in the gift situation. Feasible gains might be new information around one’s very own ability, great marks, learning around something one finds interesting, worship from appropriate agents, and also so on. Possible losses might be a feeling of not expertise a topic, poor grades, or reference from important people. Which aspects of box 2 are many salient will depend on the situation.

However, crate 1 and Box 2 interact. Each salient facet of the instance does not have equal strength to influence learning motivation but instead depends on the learner’s motivational characteristics (Box 1). Therefore the impact of situation characteristics ~ above the stimulation of a learner’s an inspiration for SRL will vary. In particular, the interaction in between person and situation characteristics influences goal setting, the learner’s expectancies, and the incentives the human being perceives as possible in this case (Box 3). These variables in turn determine both the strength and also quality/type the learning an inspiration (Box 4). For example, students might study a text since they are very interested in the topic defined in the text, they may enjoy the challenge of a very challenging task, or they might anticipate praise from others. These different qualities/types the learning motivation correspond to various motives (Box 1). Each type has a characteristic constellation the incentives and/or expectancies. For instance, an ideas related specifically to achievement, that is, challenge, contains the inspiration of hopeful self-evaluation and also the expectancy of getting to a challenging goal by one’s own action; interest-related an inspiration contains the incentive to it is in in close call with one appreciated thing or object (see exposition in this Chapter).

The following step in developing the design is to ask how, in detail, do motivational variables influence learning and how deserve to we recognize the affect they deserve to have top top the learning outcome? as learning an inspiration per se cannot produce any type of learning outcome, us propose that there need to be variables that mediate the affect learning an ideas may have actually on learning (Box 5). In the instance of SRL, in which the student has countless degrees of liberty for exactly how to learn, we assume that time ~ above task and also the mode of learning activity are plainly relevant mediating variables. A more mediating variable might be the learner’s functional state during learning. This variable refers to the learner’s physiological and psychological activation and also concentration throughout learning. Last yet not least, us think the the learner’s motivational state throughout learning mediates the results that the initial learning an ideas (i.e., the an inspiration that led the human being to begin learning) has actually on the learning outcome. Together the early stage learning motivation may readjust considerably throughout a long learning period, that is no tautological to regard motivational state throughout learning together a mediating variable for the affect of initial an ideas on finding out outcome. Learning outcome (Box 6) marks the finish of the chain of processes presented in Figure 1.

Taking into account the number of intervening processes between the who motivational features (Box 1) and also the discovering outcome (Box 6), the is not surprising the the contents of these two boxes turn out to be only weakly correlated. Therefore, when attempting to understand the impact of an inspiration on learning, correlational analyses between such distantly related variables will not disclose much. Rather it is crucial to examine functionally closely related variables in a research program that examines every single step that the frame specified in Figure 1.

John Dunlosky, Robert Ariel, in Psychology of Learning and also Motivation, 2011

2.1 an interpretation and Examples

An plot of SRL is any type of student actions or cognition that is directed toward reducing a discrepancy between a current perceived state and also a goal appropriate to power or learning.1 This an interpretation for SRL was arisen from device theories the self-regulation (Powers, 1973; for various other perspectives, view Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001) and also has several vital implications. The an initial is the SRL is goal-oriented, because regulation entails reducing a discrepancy between internal states: a regarded state and a score state. For instance, a student may want come recall the main theories of fist for one introductory food on cognition (a goal) however may it is in having difficulties recalling lock (a perceived state). For a student, a discrepancy is not adequate to stimulate self-regulation, since they regularly have numerous unmet goals, which cannot all be gone after at the very same time. But, once a college student takes top top a given task, it is the student's current perceived state and goal for it that will certainly trigger and drive self-regulation.

Second, the discrepancies that confront students often require planning to minimize; placed differently, students will certainly usually require to setup to attain their goals, unless of food their purposes are to merely pass basic class (but even for this goal, self-regulation is compelled to attend class for exams). Self-regulation does not necessitate planning, however the type of SRL the students often engage in will certainly be most efficient when guided by planning. Preparing because that an exam will require some arrangement of attack, even if it method planning one all-night study session ~ above the evening prior to the exam. Unfortunately, this arrangement is a famous one (Taraban, Maki, & Rynearson, 1999), and also in this solitary cram session, SRL deserve to be driven to the maximum together a college student decides just how much to study assorted topics (e.g., those that the teacher emphasized), just how much time have to be spent analysis versus taking exercise tests, and so forth. Thus, plan is a basic aspect of effective SRL, just as that is for any other type of trouble solving (e.g., Friedman, Scholnick, & Cocking, 1987; Miller, Galanter, & Pribram, 1960; Newell & Simon, 1972).

Third, by constraining what counts as SRL, the meaning itself expose the breadth the the concept, namely, SRL has any task directed towards achieving some learning-relevant goal, whether it be mastering a ide in one independent study or achieve a details grade in a forced course. A few of the tasks that students have the right to use to attain their course-related goals are listed in Table 1. Each task involves subgoals (and thus discrepancies) that require regulating various behaviors: for successfully attending class, busy students may need to schedule courses at convenient times and also rearrange work schedules. For completing homework assignments, college student will need to arrangement when to finish each one and also develop purposes for perfect them. In spite of these differences, every the tasks on this list have the right to be engaged in the search of learning.

ActivitiesCore readings into the pertinent literature
Prestudy activities
Goal settingMorisano, Hirsh, Peterson, Pihl, and also Shore (2010)
Attending classClump, Bauer, and Whiteleather (2003)
Taking notesPressley, van Etten, Yokoi, Freebern, and Van Meter (1998)
Completing in-class activitiesBlood and also Neel (2008)
Time managementBritton and also Tesser (1991)
Study activities
Using comprehension and also memory strategiesMcNamara (2010), Richardson (1998)
Collaborative studyingJeong and Chi (2007)
Allocating study timeDickinson and also O'Connell (1990)
Self-testingCredé and also Kuncel (2009)
Asking questionsGraesser, McMahen, and also Johnson (1994)
Seeking assist from tutors/teacherAzevedo, Moos, Greene, Winters, and Cromley (2008)
Completing homework assignmentsDettmers, Trautwein, Ludtke, Kunter, and Baumert (2010)

Viewed in this manner, afford a an ext general goal (e.g., earning one A in a chemistry class) calls for the coordination of numerous interrelated activities. Success at one activity often is important for successfully engaging in other activities. Students that fail come attend course cannot take notes, and also without sufficient notes, students might not be able to devise appropriate questions around their misunderstanding or might have challenges prioritizing products for study. Despite the interplay of these activities, every one is frequently investigated in isolation, and also even some critical activities of SRL—for example, time management and also collaborative study—have received small attention in the field. Admittedly, our very own research ~ above SRL suffers indigenous isolationism in that us have practically exclusively investigated study-time allocation; nevertheless, the resulting agenda-based regulation (ABR) framework, i beg your pardon is presented below, integrates metacognitive, cognitive, and also social constructs in a path that can be modified come investigate other SRL tasks (Table 1) and their interplay.

Finally, the an interpretation of SRL and its implications can be supplied to create interrelated and also testable hypotheses about why student fail to achieve their goals. In general, students are expected to underachieve when they (a) fail to collection goals, (b) perform not remember their goals, (c) carry out not construct plans to accomplish their goals, (d) build ineffective plans, or (e) do not execute their effective plans properly. Worrying hypothesis testing, once students do not control effectively, one deserve to understand this dysregulation by systematically investigate the contribution of the sources above. For instance, Dunlosky and also Thiede (2004) observed that plenty of students regulation their study time suboptimally, and also then demonstrated the this dysregulation occurred from failures to plan and from challenges in executing plans once they to be developed. Plenty of other factors can add to negative SRL, such as a lack of motivation, insufficient declarative or procedural knowledge, and also deficiencies in liquid intelligence and working-memory capacity. Thus, as we comment on in further detail below, us advocate an approach that centers SRL within an information-processing system, since joint investigation of the contribution of these determinants will be vital for a complete understanding of student success.

B.J. Zimmerman, in international Encyclopedia the the society & behavioral Sciences, 2001

5 Methodological Issues

Initial initiatives to measure up self-regulated discovering processes relied ~ above inventories in i beg your pardon students are asked to price their usage of particular learning strategies, various varieties of scholastic beliefs and also attitudes, common methods the study, and their efforts to plan and manage their examine time. Another method is the use of structured interviews that associated open-ended questions around problematic finding out contexts, together as creating a theme, completing mathematics assignments, and motivating oneself to study under daunting circumstances. The latter kind of assessment needs students to create their own answers, and also experimenters to train coders come recognize and also classify assorted qualitative develops of self-regulatory strategies. Return both of this approaches have reported an extensive correlations with steps of scholastic success, castle are restricted by their retrospective or prospective nature—their emphasis on the normal or wanted methods the learning. As such, they rely on recall or anticipatory knowledge rather 보다 on yes, really functioning under taxing circumstances. To stop these limitations, there have actually been initiatives to research self-regulation on-line at various key points throughout learning episodes utilizing speak-aloud, experimenter questioning, and also various performance and also outcome measures. Experimental studies use the latter measures sell the best opportunity to test the causal linkage among various self-regulatory processes, but, even this strategy has potential shortcomings, such together inadvertent cuing or interference through self-regulatory processes.

Two common research architecture issues have arised in academic interventions through at-risk populaces of students: the absence of a an ideal control group, and the reactive impacts of self-regulatory assessments. Educators have actually asked self-regulation researcher to administer assistance to students that are often in jeopardy the expulsion, and also it is unethical come withhold treatment from few of these college student for speculative purposes. One systems is to use intensive within-subject, time-series draft in which treatments are presented in sequential phases. However, together students start to collect and also graph data ~ above themselves, castle become more self-observant and also self-reflective—which can produce unstable baselines. This, in turn, have the right to confound causal inferences about the efficiency of various other self-regulatory materials of the intervention.

Gary D. Phye, in Encyclopedia of used Psychology, 2004

8 college student Self-Efficacy: A sense of Competency

Self-regulation or self-regulated discovering emphasizes the motivational next of person behavior. Together such, that is a complementary view of the details processing strategy to scholastic learning. Metaphorically, cognitive theory and also motivational theory space two political parties of the “coin” called academic learning. Research initiatives by education psychologists studying self-regulation emphasize exactly how learners straight their thoughts, feelings, and actions toward the attainment the their scholastic goals.

Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy was questioned previously in ~ the paper definition of study or practice. Generally speaking, self-efficacy is the exercise of regulate by the individual in the everyday task the adapting to a facility environment. Self-regulation and also the advancement of a feeling of self-efficacy grow out of a complex interaction that behaviors, interpersonal factors, and environmental demands. In the classroom, a simplified example involves teacher variables, curriculum demands, and also students’ sense of success through the curriculum being taught (math, reading, etc.). This feeling of success translates on a an individual level because that the student together being knowledgeable in the subject being taught. Furthermore, the success each other a feeling of self-efficacy: “I have the right to do this, ns understand just how to take it what I currently know and also use it to learn more about this due to the fact that I know what the takes to gain better.” “I to be a an excellent reader.” “I am an excellent at math.”

Self-efficacy to be introduced earlier within the context of practice since of the place taken through Bandura that it is the demonstrate of being knowledgeable (a great reader or an excellent at math) that precedes the feeling of self-efficacy. Over the lengthy term (from kindergarten come grade 12), the is the sense of self-efficacy in academic subject matter locations that gives the motivational basis for successfully making the change between procedural and also strategic knowledge construction by a student.

This sense of self-efficacy is what sustains a student when scholastic problem solving becomes facility and difficult. When confronted with a complex academic problem, a successful problem solver has sufficient declarative understanding to bring to the task; enough procedural knowledge to synthesize, integrate, and evaluate the declare knowledge; and also can strategically (knowing when) translate this right into a successful solution for a certain problem. That is self-efficacy, the feeling of gift able come exercise personal control end the procedure of knowledge building and construction in an scholastic setting, that characterizes strategy knowledge.

A main tenet the the SRL view is the learners can potentially monitor, control, and also regulate details aspects of their very own cognition, motivation, and behavior and also some features of their setting (Pintrich, 2004). Student who do self-regulate their finding out are an ext effective learners 보다 those who perform not. The qualities of those that self-regulate their discovering include:


A familiarity with and also knowledge of just how to use a collection of cognitive tactics (e.g., repetition, elaboration, and also organization) which help them to to visit to, transform, organize, elaborate, and recover information.


A understanding of how to plan, control, and also direct their psychological processes toward the achievement of personal goals (meta-cognition).


Evidence of a set of motivational beliefs and also adaptive emotions, such as a high feeling of scholastic self-efficacy, the fostering of discovering goals, the breakthrough of positive emotions toward work (e.g., joy and also enthusiasm), and the volume to control and also modify these, adjusting them come the demands of the task and of the certain learning situation.


Ability come plan and also control the time and also effort provided on tasks and knowledge of just how to create and also structure favorable learning environments, such as finding a suitable place to study and also help-seeking native teachers and class mates as soon as they have actually difficulties.


Evidence of greater initiatives to take part in the control and also regulation of scholastic tasks, classroom climate, and structure (e.g., exactly how one will certainly be evaluated, job requirements, the design of class assignments, and organization of work teams) once the context enables it.


Ability to put into play a collection of volitional strategies, aimed at avoiding external and also internal distractions, in stimulate to maintain their concentration, effort, and motivation while performing academic tasks (Montalvo and Torres, 2004).

In a frame for classifying the various phases and areas because that regulation, Pintrich (2004) explains a temporal matrix involving four phases, from forethought, planning and activation, to monitoring, to control, and, finally, come reaction and also reflection. He sees every of these phases together being applicable come cognition, motivation/affect, behavior, and also context. In cognition, because that example, the students set specific objectives for learning, are conscious of progression toward those goals, have the ability to adjust directions if the strategies room not working, and also make cognitive judgments on how they did. In motivation/affect, regulation would encompass attempts to regulate beliefs such together self-efficacy, score orientation, job value, awareness of job difficulty, and personal interest, and also controlling emotions such together fear and also anxiety. In behavior, regulation is focused, because that example, on effort, control, time management, and help-seeking strategies, when regulation of context is around control of the environment. If the latter would not have actually been thought feasible even 30 years back in higher education, the development of student-centered to teach approaches, whereby students are asked to make a better input right into processes, has actually meant the students do have actually influence end some facets of the environment.

Self-regulators treat discovering as an activity that they construct proactively fairly than just reactive processes created by your reactions to teaching. Each procedure of self-regulated behaviors can be teach by parents, teachers, classmates, etc.

From this perspective then, the process of promoting effective student learning involves teaching the students come become much more effective self-regulators of your learning. This is normally completed through interventions embedded in the paper definition of common subject-matter teaching, and in which teachers play a crucial role.

Different varieties of intervention have been reported. Because the main objective is meta-cognition, the current emphases room on self-reflective practices and on instruction design to scaffold the students’ development. To develop awareness and control of your learning, college student must connect with and practice utilizing a selection of skills, know how they space used, understand why one strategy is best used at once rather than another, and know what impacts the embraced strategy is having on learning. Modeling by the teacher the the key processes – planning, managing the process, outlining the appropriate sources, and also reviewing what has been done – provides students with observable examples, and direct teaching of the self-regulation strategies room both basic starting points. However, the is the students that must engage in practice, in self-monitoring, and with the social support systems to attain the level of competence essential to self-regulate their own learning.

The development of methods of measure up the efficiency of the interventions has not retained pace with the advance of the explanatory frameworks behind the current thinking. Both the Learning and Study methods Inventory (LASSI) and also the motivated Strategies for finding out Questionnaire (MSLQ) to be designed prior to the plenty of dimensions now taken into consideration to it is in a part of the SRL framework were identified. In including numerous of this dimensions, the latter is most likely still the finest quantitative instrument available.

While countless learning-to-learn programs fit comfortably within the explanation in this section, there space some, for example, those focused on occurring specific skills such together reading, or top top the development of mnemonic skills that execute not. Simpson et al. (1997) keep in mind in a testimonial of academic assistance programs the these program have ongoing to grow for a selection of reasons, one gift that numerous university students room not self-regulated learners. They define program models together being based upon either a generic or embedded approach. Share interventions are usually conducted outside of the teaching context (e.g., development of note-taking skills).

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In a considerable meta-analysis of the impacts of learning skills interventions top top student discovering Hattie et al. (1996) use effect size come gauge the effectiveness of a range of treatment programs in terms of students’ scholastic performance, readjust in examine skills, and also affective changes. The conclusions they draw from the meta-analysis are constant with the conclusions in the literary works at the time: the interventions are associated with rises in college student performance, in study skills, and also in impact and are efficient most that the time. The impacts are greatest on power (effect dimension 0.57) and least for study an abilities (0.16). Castle conclude the the usual study an abilities package is not as efficient as metacognitive and contextualized intervention, however it is significantly far better than nothing. However, they also found that these results are no uniform throughout the education sectors. Of the 51 studies analyzed by Hattie and also coworkers, 21 were from university or adult-learning contexts. Effect sizes from the university subsample, for performance, study skills, and impact are 0.27, 0.19, and also 0.68, respectively. In regards to performance and study skills, these are small effect sizes, and also such interventions cannot be thought about to be major contributors to boosting student learning. The moderate impact size for influence suggests the the interventions may adjust students’ perspectives to your work, and as listed in the notes over on self-regulated learning, students’ attitudes are related to facets of your performance.