LEARNING OUTCOMES9.1 specify the systems establishments use to make decisions and also gain competitive advantages.9.2 describe the three quantitative models commonly used by decision assistance systems.9.3 describe the relationship in between digital dashboards and also executive information systems.9.4 List and describe four species of man-made intelligence systems.9.5 describe three species of data-mining analysis capabilities.

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1.DECISION MAKING
i)Reasons because that the expansion of decision-making information systems.⇨People should analyze large amounts that the info to compete with competitors.⇨People should make decisions quickly if do manually it takes times.⇨People must apply innovative analysis techniques to make good decisions if use manually it cannot be predict because did not complete.⇨People must defend the corporate legacy of organizational info such together security and also password.ii)Model -a simplified representation or abstraction of truth .⇒IT solution in one enterprise.
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➞Moving up through the business pyramid users relocate from requiring transactional info to analytical info .➠Transaction handling systems fine info want rough circuit information. Need coarse information but can it is in understand.i)Transaction processing system- the simple business mechanism that serves the work level (analysts) in an company for everyday to daily tasks eg: Excel and accounts payable system.ii)Online transaction processing (OLTP) -the catching of transaction and event details using an innovation to procedure the details ,store information and update existing details to reflect the brand-new information.iii)Online analytical handling (OLAP)-the manipulation of info to create company intelligence in support of strategy decision making.3)Decision support systems➤Use by managers level and also get the information from transaction processing systems.If transaction processing device did not vital in every data ,decision support systems cannot make decision.➤3 quantitative models used by DSSs include :i)Sensitivity evaluation -the examine of the affect that changes in one (or an ext )parts of the model have actually on various other parts the the version in future .Eg: Price of petrol change every month ,changes price that petrol will give impact to other.ii)What-if analysis -checks the impact of a readjust in an presumption on the proposed equipment .Eg: What will happen customers buy plenty of product?Will increase revenue .If many customers go not much order commodities ?Will to decrease revenue.iii)Goal-seeking evaluation -finds the iputs important to achieve a goal such as desired level that output.Eg:How to achieve target to get RM8 million in this month ?4)Executive information systems (EIS)- more good and facility than decision support systems .It additionally help senior level executive, management .If decision support systems cannot do decisions EIS will do.➤Most EISs giving the complying with capabilities :i)Consolidation -involves the aggregation the information and features basic roll-ups to complex groupings the interrelated details .Eg :if KFC want to acquire profit or revenue the state the Malacca ,they can get profit for every branch in state that Malacca and combine the information.ii)Drill-down :Find information an ext details zb : have the right to know every employee sales.iii)Slice-and-dice : look at at details from different perspectives same prefer cube. Have the right to know total every sales ,even have actually all information you can select what you desire to see.➤Digital dashboard -integrates details from lot of components and also presents that in a unified display.From different component that have actually all information . Every executive will acquire digital dashboard .5)Artificial intelligence (AI)➤i)Intelligent system -various commercial applications of man-made intelligence(use daily to make decisions .➤ii)Artificial knowledge (AI) -simulates human intelligence such as the capacity to reason and also learn. Benefits : can inspect info on rivals .➜Ultimate score of AI is the capacity to build a device that deserve to mimic human being intelligence .Eg: They develop robot to carry out all work.➜4 most usual categories that AI incorporate :a)Expert device -computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of professionals in solving an overwhelming problems.b)Neural network -attempts come emulate the way the human brain works.Eg: Finance industry uses neural network to review loan applications whether approved or denied. *Fuzzy logic -a mathematical an approach of dealing with imprecise or subjective information.c)Genetic algorithm -an synthetic intelligent device that mimics the evolution ,survival-of -the-fittest process to create increasingly far better solutions to a problem.d)Intelligent agent- special-purposed understanding -based details system that accomplishes details tasks on behalf of its users. *Multi-agent systems *Agent-based modelling6)Data Mining
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➢Data mining software includes many develops of AI such as neural networks and also expert systems.➣Common forms of data-mining analysis capabilities incorporate :a)Cluster analysis -a an approach used to division an information set into mutually exclusive groupus.Eg:Tesco cluster the things if baby things they put all baby brand (Pureen,Johnson) into baby places.b)Association detection -reveals the degree to i beg your pardon variables are related and nature and also frequency of this relationships. *Market basket analysis-can recognize customers behavior .Eg:When Hari Raya ,Tesco will placed the points of most customers demand when Hari Raya in former of entrance.c)Statistical evaluation -performs such functions as details correlations ,distribution ,calculations and variance analysis.

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*Forecast -predictions made on the basis of time-series information. *Time-series info :time-stamped information built up at a details frequency .(Eg:expired date)