The following is a Plot an overview and evaluation of Season 5, illustration 3 that the background Channel’s TV collection The Curse of Oak Island.

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Plot Summary

At the Money Pit area, Craig Tester and Jack Begley satisfy with geologist terrycloth Matheson and also driller Mike Gudelwicz in bespeak see just how the pattern drilling operation is progressing. The endowment hunters learn that Brewster Drilling, the contractors they hired because that the job, have finished drilling ten exploratory feet in the Money Pit area, no one of which have actually yielded items of especial interest.

Meanwhile, Rick and Marty Lagina accompany steel detection skilled Gary Drayton come Oak Island’s many 16, where they hope to uncover evidence of pre-1795 activity. In an interview, Rick defines that this lot is the website at which former Oak Island sweetheart hunter Robert Dunfield, when digging an substantial crater in the Money Pit area in the mid-late 1960’s, dumped lot of the spoils.

The 3 treasure hunters are joined by Dave Blankenship, that instructs them come “find something shiny and gold.” Instead, Drayton unearths “a bloody modern nail.”

“Quit finding that sh**, Gary, and also find other good,” admonishes Blankenship, to which Drayton replies, “I to speak we relocate away native this dastardly area.”

Drayton starts steel detecting in an additional area of lot of 16 and also quickly unearths what show up to be 2 17th Century brother coins, the head of one of which Drayton confidently identifies together likeness the King Charles II that England. Drayton becomes even an ext confident in his assertion once he sees words “CAROLVS” clearly inscribed on the coin’s edge. The narrator then provides us a brief history lesson ~ above the 1660 Restoration, in i m sorry Charles II reclaimed the thrones that England, Ireland, and Scotland from Puritanical dictator Richard Cromwell, mr Protector that a short-lived brother republic referred to as the English Commonwealth. He likewise informs us that brothers coins struck under Charles II’s dominance bore the Latinized version of his Christian name: “CAROLVUS” (pronounced “Carolus”).

As Drayton studies one of the coins, the remarks that they are the only 17th Century british coins that the guys of Oak Island tourism Inc. Have actually recovered ~ above Oak Island. “Marty, possibly I am good luck,” says Dave Blankenship, in an answer to a quip made previously in the episode. “You’re goddang appropriate you’re great luck!” replies the younger Lagina brother.

An interpretation of the English coin bearing the likeness the King Charles II.

Rick bring away a closer look at among the coins and also suggests the the day inscribed on it is ‘1673.’ Marty, who is analyzing the other coin, says that the date on his is ‘1694.’ The 4 treasure hunters proceed to comment on the significance of the find. All agree that the visibility of 17th Century brothers coins in Oak Island is very unusual, especially when taken into consideration in conjunction with the 17th Century Spanish coin discovered in the Oak Island swamp; the brother Crown and also Spanish empire were great rivals in the 1600’s. Drayton remarks the the visibility of at the same time British and also Spanish coins ~ above the island is congruent v the theory that the Money Pit was constructed by pirates, possibly by the crew the pirate captain william Kidd. The narrator then reminds us of the infamous Wilkins map- a endowment map vaguely resembling Oak Island, which journalist Harold T. Wilkins had in his 1935 historical fiction Captain Kidd and his Skeleton Island. Wilkins claimed to have based this map ~ above his storage of two treasure maps allegedly drawn by Captain Kidd.

The Lagina brothers, Dave Blankenship, and Gary Drayton head end to the residence of Dan Blankenship to show the elderly treasure hunter your find. ~ above looking the coins over, Dan says that they offer credence come the foundational theory, upon which all various other Oak Island theories are based, that something significant happened ~ above Oak Island before 1795- a concept which he hoped to authenticate as soon as he first set foot ~ above the island in 1965. “Hopefully this is simply the beginning,” says Drayton.

Later, Rick and Marty Lagina, Craig Tester, and Jack Begley congregate at the Money Pit area, whereby the sample drilling procedure is underway. At a depth the 162 feet, the drill to meet a tough object which, when carried to the surface, is revealed to it is in a special chunk of steel. The narrator says that this piece of metal could be a fragment of the impenetrable iron thing encountered by driller william Chappell in 1897. Automatically afterwards, the drill grinds to a halt, having actually encountered an additional such object. The team decides to bring the drill up and case the hole v PVC pipe. “I’m no dismayed in ~ all,” states Rick the the advancement in a later on interview. “That’s the factor for the grid, friend know? us may uncover it in the an initial hole, we may find it in the thirty seventh hole. We’ll find it.”

The following morning, Marty Lagina and Craig Tester journey to Dave Blankenship’s home in solution to an ominous summons by Rick. On the way, Craig explains that Rick obtained a letter indigenous Nova Scotia’s room of Communities, Culture, and Heritage (CCH; a room of Nova Scotia’s provincial government) and that he likely desires to talk around it.

At Dave’s house, Dave and also Rick hand Marty and also Craig copies of the letter, the author of which expresses worry that “metal detecting top top the island has the potential to impact existing archaeological sites and also resources,” and also stipulates that Oak Island tours Inc. May proceed to carry out such operations just under the supervision of an archaeologist. The letter walk on to inform the endowment hunters the they are henceforth precluded from additional “excavation or remove of objects,” and also may only proceed such occupational under a Heritage research Permit. In unison, the Lagina brothers agree that the stipulations outlined in this letter constitute the an initial step “in shutting own the totality island.”

The Lagina brothers discuss the ramifications of this letter in a later on interview. “The metal detection has noted lots of hints to what can have occurred here,” states Marty, “and it’s continuing to. So we’re really upset, very upset around this. The clue that we need might be out there come be steel detected, and we’ll never uncover it under this protocol.” Rick complies with up on his brother’s statement, saying, “It’s not simply the involves they’ve expressed; they’ve offered us parameters under which we can no much longer proceed, in our opinion.” “It’s really chilling to the exploration initiatives out here,” concludes Mary. “We just don’t obtain it.”

Back in Dave Blankenship’s home, the treasure hunters express their frustration through this recent development, and agree the a face-to-face meeting with a representative of CCH is in order.

The following day, the Oak Island team congregates in ~ Old Mader’s wharf Emporium, a restaurant in Mahone Bay, wherein Rick and Marty fill them in top top a conference they just had with Nova Scotia’s Minister of society and Heritage. Although they were unsuccessful in lifting the newly-imposed restrictions, they learned the the CCH was most likely acting in response to push put on castle by the historical community. They additionally proposed a damage in which they would certainly hire one archaeologist, who would gain a blanket Heritage research study Permit which would permit them come excavate and extract artifacts from the island as they you re welcome (as protest to applying for a Heritage research Permit every time they want to dig deep into or unearth an artifact). The CCH apparently welcomed this proposal. The team decides to rental Laird Niven, an archaeologist with who they functioned in the past.

The following day, Rick and also Marty Lagina and Craig Tester fulfill with Laird Niven in ~ the Oak Island Visitors’ Centre. There, the treasure hunters show the excavator some that the artifacts they have actually unearthed on Oak Island and ask him if the is interested in working with them. Niven accepts the job, saying that he will apply for a Heritage research Permit immediately.

The complying with day, Rick and Marty Lagina, Gary Drayton, and Laird Niven head come Oak Island’s many 24, the previous residence the Samuel Ball. There, the decide to uproot a number of trees with a backhoe in the hope that items that interest can lie beneath. In ~ the first tree they uproot, Drayton discovers the key of a spoon i m sorry Niven to trust is an 18th Century artifact. They continue to dig up several more trees, under one of which they unearth a huge chunk the iron, i beg your pardon Niven suggests might it is in the rusted remains of a door hinge.

When Marty, in the backhoe, uproots yet an additional tree, Niven call a stop to the excavation out of worry that the large stones exposed beneath it could be of social significance. The archaeologist jumps into the cavity to research the stones, and decrees the the team cannot proceed digging there. Gary Drayton, with Niven’s permission, examines the root of the extracted tree v a steel detector and discovers a item of pewter, i m sorry Niven claims is component of a spoon bowl.

When Marty asks Niven what procedure they need to follow, the excavators says that they ought to “clean increase the loose soil” in the cavity in stimulate to determine if the rocks indeed constitute the continues to be of some type of artificial structure.


The Wilkins Map

In this episode, the narrator briefly mentions the ‘Wilkins Map’ in connection with the theory that pirate Captain Kidd to be the male responsible because that Oak Island’s secret workings. The complying with is a summary of this strange document, roughly which revolves among the many bizarre chapters in the history of the Oak Island treasure hunt.

In 1935, a brother journalist named Harold T. Wilkins had actually his fourth publication published. Wilkins’ work, Captain Kidd and also his Skeleton Island, is a historical fiction book about pirates, hidden treasure, and “the exploration of a strange secret hid because that 226 years.” In the publication is the snapshot of one authentic-looking, hand-drawn endowment map depicting an island vaguely suggestive the Oak Island.

In the summer that 1937, R. V. Harris, a lawyer indigenous Halifax, Nova Scotia, who worked for both Fredrick Blair (Oak Island’s contemporary landowner) and also Gilbert Hedden (the man who owned Oak Island endowment Trove Licence at the time), discovered the map in Wilkins’ book and also showed it come Hedden. The new Jersey treasure hunter was astonished; to him, Wilkins’ map bore an uncanny same to Oak Island. Hedden studied the map an ext thoroughly and also picked out enough similarities in between it and also Oak Island- consisting of coves roughly congruent v Joudrey’s Cove, Smith’s Cove, and also the southern Shore Cove, together with a lagoon eerily similar to Oak Island’s swamp- to become convinced the it might, in fact, be a actual Oak Island treasure map attracted up by the initial Money Pit builders. Even much more fascinating was the fact that the map included directions causing the location at which the treasure lay buried. Intrigued, Hedden sent out a letter come Harold Wilkins, hope to discover where and also how he had come across such one artifact.

An translate of the Wilkins Map (top) and a map that Oak Island (bottom).

Wilkins sent a letter back to Hedden assuring him that the treasure map in his publication was not a map the Oak Island, yet rather a depiction of one island in some “eastern sea” far from the Atlantic. Next from that admission, however, he remained curiously tight-lipped about the sweetheart map’s origins and how that had discovered it.

Hedden to be unconvinced, believing that the similarities between Wilkins’ map and also Oak Island were too an excellent to it is in coincidence. Accordingly, the turned his attention towards the directions at the bottom that the map, which read:

“18 W. And by 7 E. ~ above Rock30 SW. 14 N Tree7 through 8 by 4”

The very first line of directions appeared to imply that that very first step in the sweetheart hunt to be to situate some kind of significant ‘Rock’, more than likely situated top top the beach somewhere close to the spot at which treasure hunters would certainly be most most likely to disembark. In the instance of Oak Island, the beach was probably Smith’s Cove, the ar of Oak Islandbeach many exposed come the ocean. Interestingly, Frederick Blair, throughout a conversation v Hedden onthis subject, vaguely recalled hearing around two secret drilled rocks discovered by earlier Oak Island endowment hunters, one of which lay on the shores that Smith’s Cove. Hedden had actually his crew search for these stones, and sure enough, a rock v a 2-inch-deep, 1- inch-diameter, obviously-man-made feet in that was uncovered at Smith’s Cove. We’ll call this absent Stone A. One more rock v a comparable drill hole to be found around fifty feet phibìc of the Money Pit. We’ll contact this one Stone B.


Upon finding out the stones, Hedden, who had actually a little bit of an design background, thought that the an initial line of directions suggested a allude on the heat between stone A and rock B, as checked out on a topographical map. We’ll speak to this Point Z. Allude Z would certainly be 18 systems east of stone B and also 7 systems west of stone A. This would certainly make the street between rock A and rock B 25 units in full (18+7). Due to the fact that the distance between the two drilled rocks was 415 feet, each unit would around equal 16.5 feet (415/25). Interestingly, 16.5 feet is equal to 1 rod, one old English unit that measurement.

After do this tantalizing discovery, Hedden focused his fist on the second line of directions. The theorized that the very first part that this line, “30 SW,” indicated a suggest 30 rods (495 feet) southwest of allude Z. We’ll contact this Point Y. The second part of the line, “14 N Tree,” possibly referred come a suggest 14 rods (231 feet) north of suggest Y, at which stood a tree. Maybe this was the oak tree found by Daniel McGinnis, man Smith, and also Anthony Vaughan in 1795, from which’s branch to be suspended a block and tackle directly over the Money Pit. We’ll speak to this Point X; X point out the spot.


After making part calculations, Hedden had his crew search for point Z, which to be 297 feet (18 x 16.5) east of stone B and also 115.5 feet (7 x 16.5) west of rock A. Although nothing of attention was uncovered at that specific point, the Cave-In Pit was situated a short distance away.

Next, Hedden had actually one the his employees, Amos Nauss, search the underbrush top top the southeastern finish of Oak Island, in the basic vicinity of allude Y. In Nauss’ words:

“Hedden gave me some idea that there to be something under there at the beach that he wanted to find. So ns explored roughly there v a hoe. Ns was clawing around and suddenly ns hit one rock, then another and another, every in line through each other. For this reason I determined there was something there, and also I started clearing it and called Hedden over.”

Nauss had actually rediscovered the stone triangle, very first discovered by Captain man Welling of Frederick Blair’s Oak Island Treasure agency in 1897, and also later rediscovered by Mel Chappell a couple of years previously in the feather of 1931. The basic of the 10-foot it is intended triangle to be 10 feet north of point Y. Interestingly, the basic was also exactly 30 rods (495 feet) southwest that the centre of the Cave-In Pit.

Although the Oak Island landmarks did no exactly complement the Wilkins’ map directions, Hedden was details that he to be onto something. The sweetheart hunter request Charles Roper, a surveyor native Halifax, to inspection his finds. Roper listed Hedden through the an accurate measurements in between the assorted Oak Island landmarks, and also informed the sweetheart hunter that the stone triangle appeared to suggest due north, directly towards the Money Pit area. However, top top measuring, Roper and Hedden learned that the Money Pit area to be only about 10 rods (165 feet) phibìc of the stone triangle, not 14 rods as the Wilkins’ map supposedly suggested.

Hedden was never ever able come reconcile the last line of Wilkins’ endowment map accuse with any kind of group that Oak Island landmarks.


While browsing for much more landmarks which can correspond through Wilkins’ map, Hedden found “an old dump… in which room the stays of thousands of damaged pottery flasks” on Joudrey’s Cove. Adjacent these ceramic shards was “an old coin and an cream color boatswain’s whistle…”

In the consequences of Roper’s survey, Hedden was convinced much more than ever before that the map in Wilkins’ book was a actual treasure map illustrating Oak Island. He decided to travel to England and meet v Harold Wilkins in person. When Hedden informed Wilkins the his intentions, the journalist wrote back that he to be willing to meet with the endowment hunter, however that together a journey would be a garbage of time for Hedden, together the map in his publication was certainly not one Oak Island treasure map. He also hinted in his letter the the map in his book was actually no an yes, really treasure map at all, however rather an “approximate copy” of four genuine 17th Century pirate sweetheart maps. Nevertheless, Hedden make the expedition to England and met with Wilkins in December, 1937. His suffer was both strange and discouraging.

Almost instantly after meeting Hedden, the British journalist confessed that the map in his publication was, in fact, a diagram of his own devising. When doing study for his book, Wilkins had actually come throughout an English antiques dealer named Hubert Palmer who had actually in his possession 4 17th Century charts i beg your pardon he declared were endowment maps attracted up through the well known Captain william Kidd, a Scottish privateer that was hanged for piracy on London, england’s Execution Dock in 1701, and also who was rumoured to have hidden a sweetheart of huge value on one unknown island sometime prior to his demise. Palmer walk not enable Wilkins to take photographs of his charts, i m sorry all shown what showed up to be the same island situated somewhere in the south China Sea, and so Wilkins cleared up with committing them to storage as finest he could. Making use of his storage of the charts, the journalist attracted his owntreasure map. Once his publishers demanded that his map save instructions on how to situate the treasure for added spice, Wilkins fabricated the 3 lines the instructions utilizing nothing an ext than his imagination.

Baffled by the amazing connection between Wilkins’ ad-libbed treasure searching instructions and the landmarks ~ above Oak Island, Hedden said the reporter all about the secret drilled stones, the stone triangle, the Cave-In Pit, the oak tree believed to have actually once stood beside of the Money Pit, and also the reality that the street separating this landmarks around corresponded with Wilkins’ map’s accuse if measured in old English rods. Together Hedden described the extraordinary coincidence, Wilkins became increasingly convinced that he to be the reincarnation ofa 17th Century pirate, perhaps even Captain Kidd himself, and also that his subconscious had conjured up some long-forgotten memory of the map leading to Kidd’s shed treasure, i m sorry he to be now particular lay hidden deep in ~ Oak Island. After ~ Wilkins enthusiastically revealed his conviction come Hedden, the latter started to suspect that the journalist was “every little as crazy together his publication would it seems to be ~ to make him,” or maybe a fraud.

Hedden finish his service in England, deciding the Wilkins’ map to be no much longer worth investigating. Rather of returning to Oak Island, he travelled straight to brand-new Jersey, his hometown. There, he sent a letter to his lawyer R.V. Harris explaining that, return he had actually initially planned to renew his contract with Blair the following spring, he had due to the fact that run right into serious financial difficulties and needed to emphasis on broadening his firm instead the on the Oak Island endowment hunt. Once Blair learned the this new development, he was outraged, emotion that Hedden, a other Freemason, had actually betrayed him. The 71-year-old endowment hunter waited for an additional treasure hunter to take Hedden’s place, and found one in the form of Erwin H. Hamilton.

The Impenetrable steel Object

In this episode, Oak Island tourism Inc., if drilling in the Money Pit area, encountered an impenetrable stole object at a depth the 162 feet. Before Robert Dunfield’s heavy-duty excavation in the Money Pit area, which lowered the surface ar of the Money Pit area about 10 feet, this object would have been located about 172 feet listed below the surface. This steel object found this episode sharply evokes the impenetrable iron thing encountered by driller wilhelm Chappell that the Oak Island Treasure company in the Money Pit in 1897. Chappell encountered this object at a depth of 171 feet.

In the summer of 1897, the Oak Island Treasure firm decided to conduct an exploration drilling procedure in the Money Pit. Making use of steam-powered pumps to save the flooding in check, the they set up a drilling communication in the Money Pit at the 90-foot level. From there, lock prospected the Money Pit to depths never before reached by previous Oak Island sweetheart hunters. Their findings were few of the most astounding discoveries made top top the island come date.

Core samples native the drilling operation revealed a great of wood at 122 feet and also an impenetrable iron object at 126 feet. Listed below that was a thick layer of blue clay indigenous 130-151 feet. Then, at 154 feet, the drill encountered a 7-inch class of cement adhered to by 5 inches of oak. Listed below that were about 2.5 feet of soft, loosened metal, i beg your pardon reappeared again at the 158-foot level. Comparable to the Truro agency before them, who, in 1850, situated soft, loosened metal in the Money Pit at approximately the 100-foot level, the Oak Island Treasure agency was can not to procure any type of samples of this substance. At the 160-foot level, the drill encountered an additional thick class of blue clay which finished at 171 feet. In ~ the 171-foot level, the drill encountered what appeared to it is in an impenetrable iron plate. After ~ collecting part shavings the this product by to run a magnet end the end of the drill bit, the Oak Island Treasure company confirmed that the difficult substance in ~ the 171-foot level was without doubt iron.


The repair of King Charles II that England

In this episode, the team unearths 2 British coins top top Oak Island’s lot of 16, dated 1673 and 1694, respectively. This discovery is possibly most regular with the concept that Oak Island’s treasure to be interred by pirates, maybe the crew the Captain Kidd.

Another concept which the coins sharply evoke is Canadian mining engineers Graham Harris and Les MacPhie’s fascinating argument, outlined in their book Oak Island and also its lost Treasure: The Untold Story of the brother Military’s function in the Island Flood Tunnel (2013), which proposes that the Money Pit was an initial excavated by the crew of brand-new English sweetheart hunter teacher William Phips, and that the Smith’s Cove overwhelming Tunnel to be later created by a government-sanctioned company composed of brother engineers and Cornish miners.

Unfortunately, Harris and MacPhie’s theory, along with its historic context, that is far too sophisticated to detail in this article. Somewhat much less comprehensive, however, is a summary of the prequel to the historical stage on which their theory is set- a turbulent duration of English history, outlined summary in this episode, known as the Restoration.

The Restoration has actually its roots in the good news Reformation, a series of schisms in the roman inn Catholic Church which occurred throughout the 16th Century, initiated through Protestant reversal such as Martin Luther, who established Lutheranism; john Calvin, who established Calvinism; and King Henry VIII that England, who started Anglicanism (a.k.a. The Church of England). This schisms caused a series of bloody religious wars battled throughout the 17th Century.

King Henry VIII, founder that the Church that England.

By the 1600’s, nearly every one of England was Protestant. The nation, in general, feared and also despised Catholicism, and also was defined by a paranoia that subversive Catholic agents were constantly conniving to reinstitute the old religion. At the very same time, brother Protestants were split into Anglicans and Puritans, Puritanism being an offshoot that the Church of England which organized that the ceremonial use of spiritual objects- a Catholic-like practice employed through Anglicans- to be tantamount to idolatry. In spite of their ideology system incompatibilities, adherents to these two disparate doctrines coexisted relatively peacefully for a variety of decades.

France was no immune come the spiritual turmoil the the 17th Century. Although most of the nation remained staunchly Catholic, a branch of French Calvinists dubbed Huguenots revolted versus royal authority in a series of conflicts known together the Huguenot Rebellions. The last of this rebellions, battled from 1626-1629, culminated in the Siege of La Rochelle, a Huguenot stronghold on the west coast of France (this fight is the historic event about which Alexandre Dumas’ The 3 Musketeers revolves).

The Siege that La Rochelle

During the Siege that La Rochelle, King Charles i of England, ~ above the advice the his many trusted advisor, George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, decided to help his other Protestants and join the fight against the French. In bespeak to carry out this, he would need to secure some severe capital, and in 17th Century England, the only method for the Crown to collect far-reaching tax revenue was with the usage of one institution dubbed the Parliament.

King Charles i of England.

Unfortunately, Charles I and the parliament did not see eye come eye. The king wife, a French princess called Henrietta Maria, was a devout Catholic, when the king self was an Anglican. The English Parliament, on the various other hand, to be composed primarily of staunch Puritans. The Parliamentarians loathed the king because that his faith and especially the of his wife, and as necessary refused to provide him through the capital he essential to finance his military expedition to La Rochelle.

George Villiers, duke of Buckingham

The king discovered the funding he essential through other means and tasked the duke of Buckingham v leading a pressure to the French port city. Buckingham did as commanded and collection sail because that France through a complement of 6,000 soldiers. Top top the French battlefield, the Duke’s forces suffered a series of crippling defeats, and Buckingham returned to England, humiliated.

On respectable 23, 1628, the duke of Buckingham to be stabbed to fatality by john Felton, a disgruntled officer under his command. Although evidence indicated the Felton had likely action on his own, King Charles i strongly believed that Parliament to be behind his advisor’s assassination. Accordingly, he dissolved the unhelpful institution, established to never ever reinstate the again.

For the next eleven years, Charles ns ruled England without recourse to Parliament. The king detractors labelled this period the “Eleven Years’ Tyranny.” because Parliament was the only way by i m sorry the monarch could acquire far-reaching capital, King Charles ns soon found himself in a financial predicament- a instance exacerbated through the cost incurred by his participation in the 30 Years’ war (a bloody European spiritual war combated from 1618-1645).

In 1639, King Charles I entered into a religious war through a pressure of Scottish Presbyterians called Covenanters (Presbyterianism being an offshoot the Calvinism). In order come raise money come finance this war, known as Bishops’ War, the king reluctantly reinstated Parliament. As soon as Parliament predictably refuse to comply with his wishes, he promptly dissolved it before reinstating it again a quick time later, desperate for capital.

The Parliament take it this opportunity to erode the king’s authority little bit by bit, raising resources for the king in exchange for hefty concessions. Eventually, Charlies I made decision to placed an end to the Parliament’s subversion and also attempted to arrest 5 of that is Members because that high treason. This plot sparked a physics conflict in between Parliamentarian Puritans (and their Presbyterian Covenanter allies, v whom they common a usual enemy) and also Loyalist Anglicans which devolved right into an all-out civil war, well-known today as the English civil War.

The battle of Marston Moor

This problem pitted Puritan “Roundheads,” so called for the shaven pates plenty of of their lowborn ranks impacted (which contrasted starkly v the long ringlets worn by members that the aristocracy), versus Loyalist “Cavaliers,” so called for your commanders’ same to Spanish Caballeros (mounted knights) in your haughty demeanor and gaudy clothing. Initially, Loyalist pressures won a collection of win under the command the Prince Rupert of the Rhine (the namesake that Prince Rupert, BC, and Rupert’s Land, the huge territory once regulated by the Hudson’s just Company), a dashing young mounties commander and nephew of the king. However, Prince Rupert met his enhance at the battle of Marston Moor, combated on July 2, 1644. There, his army clashed v a much bigger Parliamentarian and Covenanter force, which had a dogged, extremely disciplined cavalry troop commanded through Oliver Cromwell, a zealous Puritan farmer-turned-military commander. Cromwell’s troops routed the Loyalist cavalry, i beg your pardon turned the birds of battle in Parliamentarian favour and also ultimately brought about a decisive Roundhead victory.

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell conveniently climbed the ranking to become 2nd in command the the Parliamentarian army. He led his troops to success a the decisive battle of Naseby, which ultimately resulted in the record of King Charles I.

The conference agreed to release the king top top the problem that the relinquish some of his power to them. The stubborn monarch, however, believing the he had actually a magnificent right come rule, refused to provide the Puritans any kind of ground. After failing to convince the king come accede to your demands, Oliver Cromwell and the Parliament chose to put Charles ns on trial because that treason. The English king was ultimately convicted and sentenced to death. ~ above Tuesday, January 20, 1649, King Charles ns was attach by a single stroke the executioner’s axe in ~ London’s palace of Whitehall, thereby coming to be the just English king to lose his head.

The execution that Charles i of England.

In the wake up of the king’s execution, Oliver Cromwell established the commonwealth of England, Britains first and only republican government. In ~ the behest the his advisors, Cromwell came to be the mr Protector that this brand-new regime.

The adhering to year, the Presbyterian Scottish Covenanters turned versus their old allies, Oliver Cromwell’s Puritans, top top account of religious differences. On September 3, 1650, they faced Cromwell’s republican army, dubbed the new Model Army, at the battle Dunbar and were soundly defeated. Later on that year, in order come legitimize their cause, the Covenanters crowned Charles I’s eldest son, twenty-year-old Charles, who had spent the last fifty percent of the English Civil battle in exile in France and also Holland, King the Scotland. At the circumstances of the Covenanters, Prince Charles publicly denouncing Catholicism- a religion he inwardly adhered come on account of his mother’s influence- and also outwardly convert to Presbyterianism.

Charles II of England, kid of Charles I.

In 1651, Charles, figured out to retake his father’s crown, launched an invasion into England. This invasion finished in loss at the battle of Worcester, dealt with on September 3, 1651- the anniversary of Cromwell’s win at Dunbar- and Charles consequently fled to continent Europe.

On September 3, 1658, 59-year-old Oliver Cromwell yielded to malaria and also kidney disease. That was thrived as lord Protector the the commonwealth by his son, Richard Cromwell. Uneven his zealous father, Richard short the complete support of the brand-new Model Army and the Parliament, and soon the republic descended into anarchy.

Charles took advantage of the opportunity and returned to England. On may 25, 1660, he landed at the city of Dover, top top the southeast coast of England, accompanied by a Loyalist entourage. The prince do his means to London, greeted along the means by Englishman who were overjoyed through the return of the long-lost heir come the throne. The triumphant Charles- now King Charles II that England, Scotland, and Ireland- rode right into the resources on his 30th birthday and also reclaimed his crown.


Following his ascension to the throne, Charles II returned countless of his father’s old Royalist supporters, consisting of Prince Rupert the the Rhine, to their previous offices and rewarded lock for your loyalty. Ripe of the Parliamentarians who had actually a role in his father’s regicide, on the other hand, were condemned together traitors and hanged, drawn, and quartered (i.e. It is registered to a horrific execution, reserved for traitors, in i beg your pardon they were hanged (almost come the point of death), disemboweled alive, beheaded, and chopped into 4 pieces). The corpse that Oliver Cromwell to be exhumed and posthumously executed; the Puritan’s skeleton was hanged and beheaded, his skull afterwards placed on a wood spike and erected above Westminster Hall.

This event, in i beg your pardon monarchy went back to England, is well-known today together the English Restoration.

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The posthumous execution of Oliver Cromwell.

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