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Elements space arranged through reactivity in the periodic table.Elements with comparable reactivity room put right into the same tower or group.

You are watching: Name the three general categories into which the elements are divided.

Some the these teams have distinct names. The facets in group IA are referred to as the alkali metals.The aspects in team IIA are dubbed the alkaline planet metals.The facets in team VIIA are dubbed the halogens and theelements in group VIIIA are dubbed the noble gases or the inert gases.The steels in group IB (copper, silver and also gold) are sometimes referred to as thecoinage metals. The columnswith B (IB with VIIIB) are called the transition elements.The columns v A (IA with VIIIA) are dubbed the main groupelements.

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The facets can additionally be separated into two key groups, the metals and thenon-metals. Metals are typicallyhave a metallic sheen (shiny) space malleable (bendable) and also conduct electricity.Nonmetals generally do not present these properties.There room some facets that show some, but not all, of the metallicproperties. These elements arecalled metalloids and also are labeled right here are semi-conductors.

Electrons space the �glue� that hold atoms with each other in compounds.It is the external shell electrons that form these bonds betweenatoms. The an initial two quantum number n (the shell) and l (the subshell) space both vital inunderstanding bonding. In thisclass we focus on the shell. Theshells exchange mail to the orbits the the Bohr model.(See lecture 10.3)

The very first shell is the the smallest so it have the right to only organize a preferably of 2 electrons.The second shell deserve to only hold a maximum of 8 electrons.The 3rd shell have the right to only host a maximum of 18 electrons but isparticularly steady at 8 electrons.

Because the is the external shells that react, us are most interested in theouter shell electrons. Us canrepresent the number of electrons in the external shell with dots.The outer shell are offered the surname valence electrons.Officially, the valence electrons space the electron in the external shell ofthe uncharged atom. Chlorine has actually 7electrons in its external shell and also so have the right to represent it as a �Cl� through sevendots roughly it.

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becomes
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. An alert how 2 electron in first shell and also the 8 electrons in the second are inner shell electrons and also arenot written v dots. Here is achart of the main team elements and also their Lewis dot symbols.

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Notice the for the main group elements, the variety of valence electron isequal to the group number.