learning
AB
a relatively permanent adjust in one organism’s habits due to experience
habituationan organism’s decreasing an answer to a stimulus with recurring exposure to it
associative learninglearning that details events happen together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its aftermath (as in operant conditioning).

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classical conditioninga form of learning in i m sorry one to learn to link two or an ext stimuli and also anticipate events.
behaviorismthe check out that psychology need to be an objective science that studies response to stimuli without reference to mental processes.
unconditioned an answer (UR)in classic conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring reaction come the unconditioned economic stimulation (US), such as salivation as soon as food is in the mouth.
conditioned an answer (CR)in classic conditioning, the learned reaction come a previously neutral (but currently conditioned) stimulus (CS).
unconditioned economic stimulation (US)in classic conditioning, a stimulus the naturally and automatically cause an involuntary response.
conditioned stimulus (CS)in classic conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, ~ association v an unconditioned economic stimulation (US), comes to cause a conditioned response.
acquisitionin timeless conditioning, the initial stage, as soon as one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so the the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
higher-order conditioninga procedure in which the conditioned economic stimulation in one conditioning endure is paired through a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. Because that example, an pet that has learned the a tone predicts food can then learn that a light predicts the tone and also begin responding come the light alone.
extinctionthe diminishing the a conditioned response; occurs in classic conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); wake up in operant conditioning once a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recoverythe reappearance, after a pause, the an extinguished conditioned response.
generalizationthe tendency, as soon as a solution has been conditioned, because that stimuli comparable to the conditioned economic stimulation to elicit similar responses.
discriminationin timeless conditioning, the learned capacity to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that carry out not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
learned helplessnessthe hopelessness and passive resignation an pet or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
respondent behaviorbehavior that occurs together an automatic solution to part stimulus.
operant conditioninga form of discovering in which habits is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or reduced if complied with by a punisher.
operant behaviorbehavior the operates ~ above the environment, creating consequences.
law that effectThorndike’s rule that behaviors followed by favorable after-effects become much more likely, and also that actions followed by unfavorable aftermath become much less likely.
operant chamberin operant air conditioning research, a room (also known as a Skinner box) comprise a bar or an essential that an animal can manipulate to acquire a food or water reinforcer; attached gadgets record the animal’s price of bar pressing or crucial pecking.
shapingan operant conditioning procedure in i beg your pardon reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and also closer approximations of the wanted behavior
discriminative stimulusin operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a an answer after association with reinforcement (in comparison to connected stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
reinforcerin operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the habits it follows
positive reinforcementincreasing actions by presenting satisfied stimuli, such as food. A optimistic reinforcer is any type of stimulus that, when presented after ~ a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcementincreasing habits by avoiding or reducing uncomfortable stimuli, such together shock. A an adverse reinforcer is any type of stimulus that, once removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: an adverse reinforcement is not punishment.)
primary reinforceran innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one the satisfies a organic need.
conditioned reinforcera stimulus the gains that reinforcing power through its association with a major reinforcer; additionally known together a secondary reinforcer.
continuous reinforcementreinforcing the desired response every time the occurs.
partial (intermittent) reinforcementreinforcing a an answer only part of the time; results in slow acquisition the a response but much higher resistance come extinction 보다 does constant reinforcement.
punishmentan event that to reduce the behavior that the follows.
fixed-ratio schedulein operant conditioning, a combine schedule the reinforces a an answer only after ~ a specified number of responses.
variable-ratio schedulein operant conditioning, a combine schedule the reinforces a an answer after one unpredictable variety of responses.
fixed-interval schedulein operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a solution only ~ a mentioned time has actually elapsed.
variable-interval schedulein operant conditioning, a combine schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
cognitive mapa mental representation of the layout the one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map the it.
latent learninglearning that occurs however is not obvious until over there is an inspiration to demonstrate it.
insighta sudden and also often novel realization of the systems to a problem; that contrasts v strategy-based solutions.
intrinsic motivationa desire to execute a behavior effectively for its own sake.
extrinsic motivationa desire to perform a habits to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
biofeedbacka mechanism for electronically recording, amplifying, and providing information to screen a subtle physiological state, such together blood pressure or muscle tension.
observational learninglearning by watdhing others. Additionally called social learning.
modelingthe process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neuronsfrontal lobe nerve cells that fire once performing certain actions or once observing an additional doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s activity may permit imitation and also empathy.

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prosocial behaviorpositive, constructive, helpful behavior. Opposing of antisocial behavior.
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