Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) evaluation is a managerial accounting technique which studies the impact of sales volume and product costs on operation profit that a business. It shows exactly how operating benefit is impacted by alters in change costs, fixed costs, marketing price per unit and the sales mix of two or more products.

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CVP evaluation is involved with identification of a company's fixed costs, that variable price per unit, the price of its product and also using this data to occupational out the following measures:

Contribution margin every unit: The difference in between sales price and variable price per unit.

The most an important input in CVP analysis is the relationship in between different costs and volume i.e. The categorization of prices into fixed and variable categories.

CVP evaluation Equation

The fundamental cost-volume-profit relationship have the right to be derived from benefit equation:

Profit = Revenue – Fixed prices – change Costs

Where profit is PR, revenue equates to the product of price every unit P and also sales volume in systems Q, fixed costs FC are consistent and full variable costs equal the product of units marketed Q and also variable expense per unit V, the complying with equation is a an ext elaborate representation of CVP relationships:

PR = Q × ns - Q × V - FC

This is the most an essential equation which have the right to be used to work countless CVP numbers.

For break-even point, we need to collection PR advertisement 0 and solve because that Q and we get:

Break-even Q = FC ÷ (P – V)

It reflects that break-even point can it is in calculated by splitting fixed price by the donation margin every unit.

Contribution Margin Equation Approach

The CVP equation discussed above can likewise be express in regards to contribution margin of the product:

PR = Q × ns - Q × V - FC

PR = Q × (P – V) – FC

(P – V) in the equation over is contribution margin per unit.

CVP Graph

CVP relationship can additionally be expressed in the type of a graph referred to as CVP graph:


The graph above shows the relationship in between total revenue and also total costs. The area in between the 2 lines below the break-even suggest represents losses and the area over the breake-even allude shows the volume of total profit. This graph can be supplied to recognize profit at different output levels.

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CVP evaluation Assumptions

Even despite CVP analysis is a valuable management accounting tools, its conclusions are valid only when the following assumptions hold:

All cost can it is in categorized together variable or fixed. For this purpose, mixed prices are bifurcated right into variable and fixed components using methods such high-low method, scatter graph technique and regression analysis.Sales price per unit, variable expense per unit and total fixed expense are constant. This presumption is problematic as result of existence of economic situations of scale, increasing/decreasing return to scale and learning curve effect.All revenues and cost have actually a linear relationship v volume.The sales mix that a company remains constant.

by Irfanullah Jan, ACCA and last modification on Oct 2, 2020