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StatPearls . Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Introduction

Bone markings room invaluable come the identification of separation, personal, instance bones and bony piece and help in the knowledge of functional and also evolutionary anatomy. Lock are supplied by clinicians and surgeons, specifically orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and also anatomists. Although the untrained eye might overlook bone markings as contours that the bone, they are not together simple. Bone markings play an important role in human and animal anatomy and physiology. The use of bone markings arrays from permitting joints to slide previous each other or lock skeletal in place, providing structural assistance to muscle and connective tissue, and also providing circumferential stabilization and also protection come nerves, vessels, and connective tissue. Understanding the prominence of bone markings gives a brand-new appreciation and also understanding that bony anatomy and its useful relationships through soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - sharp bony angulations that may serve as bony or soft organization attachments but often are supplied for specific anatomical description. Examples encompass the superior, inferior, and acromial angles of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angle of the occiput.

Body - This usually describes the largest, most prominent segment that bone. Examples encompass the diaphysis or pillar of lengthy bones favor the femur and also humerus.

Condyle - describes a big prominence, which regularly provides structural assistance to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt of the force exerted native the joint. Examples encompass the knee joint (hinge joint), formed by the femoral lateral and medial condyles, and the tibial lateral and medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has an occipital condyle which articulates with atlas(C1) and also accounts for around 25 levels of cervical flexion and extension. 

Crest - A raised or prominent part of the edge of a bone. Crests are frequently the sites wherein connective tissue attaches muscle come bone. The iliac stakes is found on the ilium.

Diaphysis - describes the main part of the tower of a lengthy bone. Lengthy bones, consisting of the femur, humerus, and also tibia, all have a shaft.

Epicondyle - A importance that sits atop of a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and connective organization to bone, offering support come this musculoskeletal system. Examples include the femoral medial and also lateral epicondyles and humeral medial and also lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment the a bone, generally at the bone"s proximal and also distal poles. It usually has actually a bigger diameter 보다 the pillar (diaphysis). The epiphysis is an essential for bone growth since it sits adjacent to the physeal line, additionally known together the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that develops a share with an additional flat bone or one more facet, together creating a gliding joint. Instances can be seen in the page joints of the vertebrae, which permit for flexion and extension the the spine. 

Fissure - An open slit in a bone that usually residences nerves and blood vessels. Examples encompass superior and inferior orbital fissure.

Foramen - A hole through which nerves and also blood ship pass. Examples incorporate supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and also mental foramen ~ above the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Below it may receive another articulating bone or act to support brain structures. Examples encompass trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface that runs follow me the size of a ship or nerve, providing room to avoid compression by surrounding muscle or exterior forces. Examples incorporate a radial groove and the groove for the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent expansion of bone the forms component of a joint. It is separated native the shaft of the bone by the neck. The head is usually extended in hyaline cartilage within a synovial capsule. That is the main articulating surface with the nearby bone, developing a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The edge of any kind of flat bone. It have the right to be provided to define a bone"s boundaries accurately. Because that example, the leaf of the temporal bone articulating through the occipital bone is referred to as the occipital margin the the temporal bone. And vice versa, the sheet of the occipital bone articulating through the temporal bone is dubbed the temporal margin the the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel that extends in ~ the bone, i m sorry may carry out passage and protection to nerves, vessels, and also even sound. Examples encompass external acoustic meatus and internal hear meatus.

Neck - The segment in between the head and also the column of a bone. That is frequently demarcated indigenous the head by the presence of the physeal heat in pediatric patients and the physeal scar (physeal heat remnant) in adults. That is regularly separated into the surgical neck and anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which might represent the old epiphyseal plate, is often demarcated by its attachment to capsular ligaments. The operation neck is often an ext distal and also is demarcated by the site on the neck that is most typically fractured. For example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck operation obliquely native the higher tuberosity to simply inferior to the humeral head. The operation neck runs horizontally and a couple of centimeters distal come the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone which often, yet not always, gives stabilization come an adjacent articulating bone. The articulating bone will certainly slide into and out the the notch, guiding the variety of movement of the joint. Examples incorporate the trochlear notch on the ulna, radial notch that the ulna, suprasternal notch, and also the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved part of a bone that provides structural assistance to the remainder of the bone. Examples encompass the superior/inferior pubic ramus and ramus that the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any type of organ or tissue. Examples include paranasal sinuses and dural venous sinuses.

Spinous procedure - A raised, spicy elevation of bone wherein muscles and connective tissue attach. It is various than a normal process in that a spinous procedure is an ext pronounced.

Trochanter - A large prominence ~ above the next of the bone. Several of the biggest muscle groups and most dense connective tissues affix to the trochanter. The many notable examples are the greater and lesser trochanters that the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate prominence where muscles and also connective organization attach. Its duty is comparable to that of a trochanter. Examples encompass the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and also ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prominence where connective tissues attach. Examples encompass the greater and lesser tubercle of the humerus.